Author Biography: Elena Ognivtseva



Author Biography: Elena Ognivtseva



Elena is an avid blogger who enjoys writing articles on fashion, beauty, lifestyle, fitness and recently, CBD niches. Elena has been described as a "delightfully eccentric with a creative take on things" (New York Times) with an ability to "bring you new facts that will make you go WOW!" (Vanity Fair). Elena has been writing since her uni days where she was a regular contributor to the student magazine. After pursuing a career in finance in the heart of London's financial hub, Elena has decided to start blogging in her spare time as an outlet for her creativity and ideas. During her spare time, Elena enjoy horse riding, camping and hiking, interior design and keeping abreast with the latest trends. Elena is in the process of starting up her own beauty cosmetics line in the near future. Elena is also a contributing author to fashion and lifestyle magazines and has been featured in Vice, Country Living, Harrods magazine, Daily Telegraph, Grazia and Women's Health.


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The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an impartial sovereign state within the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist till 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI of Scotland turned king of England and Ireland, thus forming a private union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered right into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the brand new Kingdom of Great Britain.
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However, two main Jacobite risings launched in 1715 and 1745 did not take away the House of Hanover from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite motion to the United Kingdom and its monarchs successfully ended at the Battle of Culloden, Great Britain’s final pitched battle. Jacobitism, the political help for the exiled Catholic Stuart dynasty, remained a risk to the security of the British state under the House of Orange and the succeeding House of Hanover till the defeat of the Jacobite rising of 1745. The Protectorate Parliament was the primary Westminster parliament to incorporate representatives nominally from Scotland.

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DFDS Seaways operated a freight-only Rosyth – Zeebrugge ferry service, till a hearth broken the vessel DFDS have been using. Scotland has 5 worldwide airports working scheduled companies to Europe, North America and Asia, as properly domestic services to England, Northern Ireland and Wales.
The monarchy of the House of Stuart was resumed with the Restoration in Scotland in 1660. Scotland is split into 32 administrative subdivisions or native authorities, known as council areas. Glasgow City is the biggest council space in terms of inhabitants, with Highland being the most important when it comes to area. Limited January 31, 2020 -governing power, masking matters corresponding to training, social companies and roads and transportation, is devolved from the Scottish Government to every subdivision. Scotland is the second largest nation within the United Kingdom, and accounted for 8.three% of the inhabitants in 2012.

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Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by fifty nine MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. This represented a big improve from the 2017 common election, when the SNP won 35 seats. Conservative, Labour and Liberal Democrat parties also characterize Scottish constituencies in the House of Commons. The Scotland Office represents the British government in Scotland on reserved issues and represents Scottish pursuits inside the government.
Scotland has a Western-fashion open combined economic system carefully linked with the remainder of the UK and the broader world. Traditionally, the Scottish economic system was dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries.
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The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher’s government of the Community Charge one year before the remainder of Great Britain, contributed to a rising motion for Scottish control over home affairs. Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998 was handed by the British Parliament, which established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government with responsibility for many legal guidelines specific to Scotland. The first to carry the workplace of first minister of Scotland was Donald Dewar, who served until his sudden demise in 2000. The shipbuilding trade expanded by a 3rd and expected renewed prosperity, but instead, a critical despair hit the financial system by 1922 and it did not absolutely recuperate till 1939. The interwar years were marked by financial stagnation in rural and concrete areas, and high unemployment. Indeed, the war brought with it deep social, cultural, economic, and political dislocations. Thoughtful Scots contemplated their declension, as the principle social indicators such as poor well being, unhealthy housing, and long-time period mass unemployment, pointed to terminal social and economic stagnation at best, or even a downward spiral.

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In current instances, there have been arguments that point out that the Auld Alliance was never formally ended by both Scotland or France, and that many elements of the treaty might stay in place today. Scotland and France do, nonetheless, proceed to have a particular relationship, with a Statement of Intent being signed in 2013 which committed each Scotland and France to constructing on shared history, friendship, co-operation between governments and cultural trade programmes. The MOU lays emphasis on the rules of excellent communication, consultation and co-operation. The Scottish Parliament can provide legislative consent over devolved matters again to the British Parliament by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide laws is considered extra acceptable for a sure problem. The programmes of laws enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the remainder of the UK. For instance, college education and care providers for the aged are free at point of use in Scotland, while charges are paid in the remainder of the UK.

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Historically, the usage of “Scotch” as an adjective comparable to “Scottish” or “Scots” was commonplace. Modern use of the term describes merchandise of Scotland (often food or drink-related). We have an skilled labour drive and highly advanced offset, digital and display screen process printing available in-house. Yes, as we’re specialized in all sort of custom-made printing on any sizes & shapes so you possibly can have your personal artwork printed. Custom boxes are created from a wide range of shares, ranging from recycling to corrugated and cardboard sheets. At first glance, they seem very easy to organize, however an in-depth evaluation of this method exhibits that there are lots of steps involved in bringing them to completion.

Other currently much less in style candidates for the National Anthem of Scotland include Scotland the Brave, Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae and A Man’s A Man for A’ That. Robert Burns, considered the nationwide poet of Scotland is a well-known and respected poet worldwide .

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The following “Ten Years’ Conflict” of authorized and political wrangling resulted in defeat for the non-intrusionists within the civil courts. The result was a schism from the church by a few of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers, generally known as the Great Disruption of 1843. Roughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church of Scotland. In the late 19th century rising divisions between fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals resulted in an additional split in the Free Church because the rigid Calvinists broke away to kind the Free Presbyterian Church in 1893. Catholic emancipation in 1829 and the influx of enormous numbers of Irish immigrants, notably after the famine years of the late 1840s, mainly to the rising lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a change within the fortunes of Catholicism. In 1878, regardless of opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism grew to become a big denomination within Scotland.
In IndyCar, Dario Franchitti has gained four consecutive IndyCar world championships. The SFA also has duty for the Scotland national soccer staff, whose supporters are generally often known as the “Tartan Army”.
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In 2014, whole Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were estimated to be £27.5 billion. Scotland’s primary exports embody whisky, electronics and monetary services. The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France, and Norway represent the country’s main export markets.
BUY Packaging Boxes supplies you with high-quality customized packaging bins with brand and all printing solutions with custom printed boxes suitable for your business and your product-specific necessities. Regular ferry providers function between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne. The East Coast and West Coast primary railway traces connect the main cities and cities of Scotland with one another and with the rail network in England. London North Eastern Railway offers inter-city rail journeys between Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Inverness to London.
The Samyé Ling monastery close to Eskdalemuir, which celebrated its fortieth anniversary in 2007, is the first Buddhist monastery in western Europe. There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living overseas than the whole population of Scotland. In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million Americans self-reported a point of Scottish descent. Ulster’s Protestant inhabitants is principally of lowland Scottish descent, and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants of the Scots-Irish migration now residing in the US.

After the 2011 Scottish Parliament election gave the SNP an overall majority within the Scottish Parliament, the 2014 Scottish independence referendum was held on 18 September. During the marketing campaign, the three main events within the British Parliament pledged to extend the powers of the Scottish Parliament.
Whilst an impartial sovereign nation, Scotland had an in depth “particular relationship” with France . In 1295, each Scotland and France signed what became known as the Auld Alliance in Paris, which acted as a navy and diplomatic alliance between English invasion and enlargement. The French navy sought the help of Scotland in 1415 through the Battle of Agincourt which was near bringing the Kingdom of France to collapse. The Auld Alliance was seen as important for Scotland and it’s position inside Europe, having signed a treaty of army, financial and diplomatic co-operation with a rich European nation. There had been an agreement between Scotland and France that allowed residents of each international locations to carry dual citizenship, nevertheless, this was revoked by the French Government in 1903.

Competitive pricing is a function of BUY Packaging Boxes LTD, which ensures the highest quality and has priceless customers. The earliest extant literature composed in what’s now Scotland was in Brythonic speech in the sixth century, however is preserved as a part of Welsh literature. Later medieval literature included works in Latin, Gaelic, Old English and French. The first surviving main text in Early Scots is the 14th-century poet John Barbour’s epic Brus, specializing in the lifetime of Robert I, and was quickly adopted by a sequence of vernacular romances and prose works. In the sixteenth century, the crown’s patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry, however the accession of James VI to the English throne eliminated a major centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language. Interest in Scots literature was revived in the 18th century by figures together with James Macpherson, whose Ossian Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to realize a global status and was a serious affect on the European Enlightenment. It was additionally a serious affect on Robert Burns, whom many think about the nationwide poet, and Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels did much to outline Scottish id within the nineteenth century.
Even online companies require custom packaging bins with logos as they sell all kinds of products. Even online businesses require customized packaging packing containers with logo as they sell a wide variety of merchandise. This is the right place to decide on custom packaging in a singular type with printing for any product or product you want to pack, present, protect, retailer and sell. After another proposal from the English House of Lords was rejected in 1695, and an extra Lords movement was voted down in the House of Commons in 1700, the Parliament of Scotland once more rejected union in 1702. The failure of the Darien Scheme bankrupted the landowners who had invested, although not the burghs.
The mainland of Scotland includes the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe. Scotland’s only land border is with England, and runs for ninety six kilometres between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the wick liquor boulevard 10ml 3mg west. The island of Ireland lies solely 21 kilometres from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre; Norway is 305 kilometres to the east and the Faroe Islands, 270 kilometres to the north.
A small number of college students at certain personal, impartial faculties could observe the English system and examine in direction of GCSEs and A and AS-Levels instead. The Scottish education system has always been distinct from the remainder of the United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad schooling. In the Reformation, the 1560 First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a faculty in every parish, but this proved financially unimaginable. In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded each parish to determine a school. By the late seventeenth century there was a largely complete network of parish faculties in the lowlands, however in the Highlands fundamental schooling was still lacking in many areas.
In the late 19th century just 118 individuals owned half of Scotland, with almost 60 per cent of the whole nation being part of shooting estates. While their relative significance has considerably declined as a result of altering leisure pursuits all through the twentieth century, deer stalking and grouse taking pictures remain of prime importance on many personal estates in Scotland. Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of 1843 all undermined the tradition of parish faculties. From 1830 the state started to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding colleges by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland moved to a system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free colleges, run by native faculty boards.
Petroleum related industries related to the extraction of North Sea oil have also been essential employers from the Nineteen Seventies, particularly within the north-east of Scotland. De-industrialisation during the Nineteen Seventies and Eighties saw a shift from a producing focus in direction of a extra service-oriented economy. In 2008, the NHS in Scotland had round 158,000 employees together with more than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over three,800 consultants. There are also more than 12,000 doctors, family practitioners and allied well being professionals, including dentists, opticians and group pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a spread of providers throughout the NHS in return for fees and allowances.

Scotland is represented on the Celtic Media Festival, which showcases movie and television from the Celtic nations. Scottish delicacies has distinctive attributes and recipes of its personal but shares a lot with wider British and European cuisine because of local and international influences, both ancient and modern. Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration. Scotland’s pure larder of sport, dairy products, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a excessive reliance on simplicity and an absence of spices from overseas, as these have been historically uncommon and expensive. Irn-Bru is the most typical Scottish carbonated delicate drink, usually described as “Scotland’s different national drink” . During the Late Middle Ages and early fashionable era, French delicacies played a role in Scottish cookery as a result of cultural exchanges led to by the “Auld Alliance”, particularly in the course of the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, on her return to Scotland, introduced an entourage of French workers who’re considered liable for revolutionising Scots cooking and for a few of Scotland’s distinctive meals terminology.
M. Sievers, The Highland Myth as an Invented Tradition of 18th and 19th century and Its Significance for the Image of Scotland , pp. 22–5. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland.
  • Since 1689 it has had a Presbyterian system of church authorities and enjoys independence from the state.
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  • By inheritance in 1603, James VI of Scotland became king of England and Ireland, thus forming a private union of the three kingdoms.
  • More powers, notably in relation to taxation, had been devolved to the Scottish Parliament after the referendum, following cross-party talks within the Smith Commission.
  • The French army sought the help of Scotland in 1415 in the course of the Battle of Agincourt which was near bringing the Kingdom of France to collapse.

Scotland was the first country within the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public locations. Just over half (54%) of the Scottish population reported being a Christian while almost 37% reported not having a religion in a 2011 census.Since the Scottish Reformation of 1560, the nationwide church has been Protestant in classification and Reformed in theology. Since 1689 it has had a Presbyterian system of church government and enjoys independence from the state. Its membership is 398,389, about 7.5% of the total population, although based on the 2014 Scottish Annual Household Survey, 27.eight%, or 1.5 million adherents, identified the Church of Scotland because the church of their faith. The Church operates a territorial parish construction, with each group in Scotland having a local congregation.
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The population of Scotland grew steadily in the nineteenth century, from 1,608,000 within the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901. As a result, in the course of the period 1841–1931, about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and another 750,000 Scots relocated to England. Brands can add a die-cut window, a deal with and even print their emblem within the customized field for cosmetics. For a range of merchandise corresponding to your wristwatches, fragrances and jewelry, you can buy custom rigid boxes. Our professional team will additional enhance the appearance of your customized inflexible packing containers.
Decisions are made by councillors who’re elected at local elections each five years. The head of every council is often the Lord Provost alongside the Leader of the council, with a Chief Executive being appointed as director of the council area. Community Councils are casual organisations that represent particular sub-divisions within each council space. The Scottish National Party , which supports Scottish independence, was first elected to form the Scottish Government in 2007. The new government established a “National Conversation” on constitutional issues, proposing numerous options similar to increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism, or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition events within the Scottish Parliament created a commission to research the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-broad our bodies. The Scotland Act 2012, based mostly on proposals by the commission, was subsequently enacted devolving further powers to the Scottish Parliament.
However, the Highlands remained poor, the only a part of mainland Britain to continue to experience recurrent famine, with a limited vary of merchandise exported out of the region, negligible industrial production, however a continued inhabitants progress that examined the subsistence agriculture. These issues, and the will to enhance agriculture and earnings have been the driving forces of the continuing Highland Clearances, during which many of the inhabitants of the Highlands suffered eviction as lands have been enclosed, principally so that they could possibly be used for sheep farming. The first phase of the clearances adopted patterns of agricultural change all through Britain. The second section was driven by overpopulation, the Highland Potato Famine and the collapse of industries that had relied on the wartime economic system of the Napoleonic Wars.
Nevertheless, the nobles’ bankruptcy, along with the threat of an English invasion, played a number one position in convincing the Scots elite to back a union with England. On 22 July 1706, the Treaty of Union was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament and the Parliament of England. The following year, twin Acts of Union were passed by each parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from 1 May 1707 with in style opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere. The newly shaped Parliament of Great Britain rejected proposals from the Parliament of Ireland that the third kingdom be incorporated within the union. Roman navy government was withdrawn from the island altogether by the early fifth century, resulting in the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain and the immigration of the Saxons to southern Scotland and the rest of eastern Great Britain. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a ninety six-mile border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and the Irish Sea to the south.
Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state till the Education Act 1872. RAF Lossiemouth, positioned in Moray, is essentially the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom and is residence to a few fast-jet squadrons geared up with the Eurofighter Typhoon.
The Scottish Parliament’s form of proportional illustration resulted in nobody get together having an overall majority for the first three Scottish parliament elections. However, the pro-independence Scottish National Party led by Alex Salmond achieved an total majority within 72445509 things to look for when choosing your e juice at our online vape juice shop the 2011 election, profitable sixty nine of the 129 seats available. The success of the SNP in reaching a majority within the Scottish Parliament paved the way in which for the September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence.
Service abroad on behalf of the Empire lost its attract to ambitious young people, who left Scotland permanently. The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy trade and mining was a central problem, and nobody offered workable solutions. The despair mirrored what Finlay describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that ready native enterprise and political leaders to just accept a brand new orthodoxy of centralised government financial planning when it arrived through the Second World War. After extended years of wrestle in the Kirk, in 1834 the Evangelicals gained management of the General Assembly and handed the Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject undesirable “intrusive” displays to livings by patrons.

Scotland was one of many industrial powerhouses of Europe from the time of the Industrial Revolution onwards, being a world leader in manufacturing. In widespread with most other superior industrialised economies, Scotland has seen a decline within the importance of both manufacturing industries and primary-based mostly extractive industries. This has, however, been combined with a rise in the service sector of the economic system, which has grown to be the biggest sector in Scotland.
From the mid-century, there were increasing requires Home Rule for Scotland and the publish of Secretary of State for Scotland was revived. Towards the end of the century Prime Ministers of Scottish descent included William Gladstone, and the Earl of Rosebery. Historian Neil Davidson notes “after 1746 there was a wholly new degree of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outdoors innokin adept mod sky Scotland.” Davidson also states “removed from being ‘peripheral’ to the British economy, Scotland – or extra exactly, the Lowlands – lay at its core.” The deposed Jacobite Stuart claimants had remained popular within the Highlands and north-east, notably amongst non-Presbyterians, including Roman Catholics and Episcopalian Protestants.
Scotland has its personal nationwide governing our bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association and the Scottish Rugby Union. Variations of soccer have been performed in Scotland for centuries, with the earliest reference relationship back to 1424. St Andrew’s Day, 30 November, is the national day, although Burns’ Night tends to be extra extensively noticed, significantly outdoors Scotland. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament handed the St Andrew’s Day Bank Holiday Act 2007, designating the day an official financial institution holiday.
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Scotland’s University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award levels. The Curriculum for Excellence, Scotland’s national college curriculum, presently provides the curricular framework for kids and young people from age 3 to 18. All three- and four-yr-old youngsters in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. Formal primary education begins at roughly 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); children in Scotland examine Standard Grades, or Intermediate skills between the ages of 14 and 16. These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence. The college leaving age is sixteen, after which students may choose to stay at school and examine for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher skills.
In the aftermath of the United Kingdom’s decision to withdraw from the European Union in 2016, the Scottish Government has called for there to be a joint strategy from every of the devolved governments. Since devolution in 1999, Scotland has devolved stronger working relations throughout the 2 other devolved governments, the Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive. Scotland, together with the Welsh Government, British Government as well as the Northern Ireland govt, take part within the Joint Ministerial Committee which allows each authorities to debate coverage issues collectively and work together across every government to find options. The Scottish Government considers the profitable re-establishment of the Plenary, and establishment of the Domestic fora to be necessary sides of the relationship with the British Government and the other devolved administrations.